步行设计空间对城市规划设计和景观设计的研究|景观规划. ...

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版权:学习欣赏评论_原版权归原作者所有 / 项目地:- / 设计企业(团队):- / 完成时间:- / ©发表于 2020-6-19 14:14:51
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建筑景观规划案例介绍—  荷兰政府顾问委员会和费利克斯景观设计事务所调查了步行在当代城市环境中的潜在作用。调查得知,步行是一种很有潜力的出行方式。它可能不是最快的,也可能不是最舒适的,但它是唯一一种不需要交通工具的出行方式。选择步行这种低碳方式出行,能减少我们对环境造成的影响。并且,步行空间能释放部分城市空间,从而能增强城市在应对社会和环境问题的抗压性。但奇怪的是,在日常公共空间设计中,步行空间常常被忽视。上述内容是在与城市心理学家Sander van der Ham–STIPO密切合作下得出的结论。其中明确了步行有哪些潜在的好处,并确定了如何实现这些好处的设计任务。

景观建筑建筑设计城市规划设计案例—增加城市规划设计的抗压性the potential of walking:tackling diverse social and environmental challenges


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在生活中,步行是多种出行选择中的一种,但是景观建筑师通常不会特意去选择步行作为出行方式。为了园林景观设计出鼓励参与者们多走路的生态环境,景观建筑师需要了解如何才能引导参与者们选择步行。设计研究得出,这会受许多因素的影响。其中最主要因素是景观建筑师的大脑,景观建筑师的大脑会存储、解决景观建筑师在生活中所经历的一切。大体来说,景观建筑师的大脑有2套不同的系统来影响景观建筑师做出选择。
面对不同的情况,大脑会启用不同的系统,在系统1的情况下,景观建筑师会做出无意识的、情绪化的决定。这种选择是基于经验来判断的,在这种情况下,景观建筑师不会进行思考就会做出选择。而在系统2的情况下,景观建筑师处于理性的状态,会进行有意识的思考。这时景观建筑师会对之前的经验做批判性的思考,从而做出明智的选择。为了促进大家选择步行出行,景观建筑师需要在园林景观设计城市规划设计步行设计空间时同时考虑这两个系统。

Walking is a choice, although we often do not make that choice very consciously. In order to create environments that encourage people to walk more, we need to understand how we can influence people’s choice to do so. The choice of walking is influenced by many factors. Everything we experience in the course of our lives is stored in our brain as information. We roughly have two methods or “systems” to interpret this information, and make choices based on it.
System 1 makes unconscious, emotional, fast, automatic, and effortless decisions. Choices are based on rules of thumb that originate from previously acquired knowledge, experiences or emotions. They undergo little to no critical reflection. System 2 is rational and requires conscious reflection and costs a lot of energy. It allows informed choices to be made, and questions the rules of thumb of system 1. To boost walking, we need to address both systems in our way of designing cities.

▼心理决策影响城市规划设计生态环境Psychological decisions affect the urban environment


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生活中的步行设计空间通常是基于城市规划设计道路设计园林景观设计来安排的。这就导致景观建筑师在去向某地时,关注的是如何花费更少的时间到达目的地,而忽略了途中美丽的风景。这也证实了景观建筑师大脑系统1的偏见:当你要出行时,它会默默告诉你,如果你选择开车或骑自行车出行时就能更快达到目的地。如今以园林景观建筑规划设计道路设计园林景观设计来安排步行设计空间的方式已潜移默化的深入景观建筑师生活中,现在景观建筑师想要做出改变,将社会与步行重新联系起来,首先需要将以园林景观建筑规划设计参与者为本的园林景观设计应用到景观建筑师的街道和公共空间设计空间。基于舒适度好、可达性好和回报性高的原则做出的参与者性化步道设计空间,在潜意识中引导景观建筑师选择步行。
Space for walking is often designed according to the same “mechanical” logic as that of roadways. The experience en route is secondary to reaching the destination as quickly as possible. This constantly confirms the prejudices of system 1 in our brain: you are faster by car or by bicycle. Reconnecting society with walking, after years of applying generic rules of car environments, starts by applying human-oriented measures to our streets and public space. Walkable spaces based on enhancement of comfort, proximity, and rewarding can bring humanized street designs that subconsciously tempt us to choose to walk.

▼将社会与步行重新联系起来,做出舒适度好、可达性好和回报性高的步道设计空间Connecting the society and walking again, and making a comfortable, accessible and rewarding footpath space


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将步行作为完成各设计项目标的催化剂Walking as a catalyst for different agenda’s
从长远目标来看,步行能使景观建筑师做出更明智、有意识的决定。通过批判性地反思景观建筑师当前的经验和习惯,随着时间的推移,步行会成为一个更优势的选择。景观建筑师能够将步行与城市规划设计生态环境建设联系起来,帮助实现社会目标。这使得选择步行不仅仅是选择一种出行方式,更是一种减少空气污染,建设更清洁、更健康世界的自觉选择。通过将步行与不同的目标联系起来,能够鼓励景观建筑师选择步行,也拔高了步行它本身的意义。链接越多样化,就越能让大众感到有必要走得更远。
By placing walking in a broader context, we can make better informed conscious decisions. By critically reflecting on our current rules of thumb and habits, walking can become a more obvious choice over time.We can achieve this by linking the act of walking to the contribution it makes to social and environmental agendas. This makes the choice for walking more than a mere choice of mobility. It becomes a conscious choice for less air pollution and a cleaner and healthier world.By associating walking with different challenges and objectives, we create arguments that can encourage us to walk and transcend the practical consideration of going somewhere by foot. The more diverse the links, the wider the audience that will feel compelled to walk.

▼步行是一种减少空气污染,建设更清洁、更健康世界的自觉选择Walking becomes a conscious choice for less air pollution and a cleaner and healthier world.

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适宜步行的城市规划设计The walkable city
毫无疑问,20世纪是汽车化的时代。汽车的大规模生产使交通运输业发生了革命性的转变,是交通民主化的一个里程碑。景观建筑师对出行效率和出行便捷的追求,使景观建筑师在园林景观设计城市规划设计设计空间布局时首要考虑的依据是城市规划设计道路设计。即,城市规划设计设计空间被园林景观设计为尽可能快速高效地从A地到B地的设计空间逻辑。
The 20th century was without a doubt the century of the automobile. Mass production of cars had revolutionized mobility and represented a milestone in the democratization of transport. The pursuit of speed and individual freedom has led to a spatial layout which follows the logic of the car. This legacy is still visible in our urban environment today. Cities are still largely organized to get from A to B as quickly and efficiently as possible.

▼将从A到B的简单逻辑转换为体验式的景观建筑方式Transforming the simple logic from a to B into an experiential landscape

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本设计研究提出一种将基础设施转化为设计功能性体验景观建筑的设计方法对策。打造一个适宜步行的城市规划设计与建设便捷化的道路设计一样重要,将街道、河道和景观建筑、社区服务设施,学校、城市规划设计广场和公共空间交通站这类结构,作为旅途中的一部分,而不是在已有基础设施的基础上再分配步行设计空间。


▼将街道、河道和景观建筑、社区服务设施,学校、城市规划设计广场和公共空间交通站这类结构,作为旅途中的一部分。Incorporating such structures as streets, waterways and landscapes, community services, schools, city squares and public transportation stations as part of the journey.

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在这瞬息万变的时代,步行可作为实现各种目标的催化剂。例如,在增加步行设计空间后,可将调节气候、节能减排、建设城市规划设计安全、控制参与者口增长的策略联系起来。
In a timeframe of changing mobility, walking can act as a catalyst to realize various governmental agendas. Strategies for, for example, climate adaptation, emission reduction, safety, densification and population growth can be linked in the space that is freed up by the increase of walking.

▼在增加步行设计空间后,可将调节气候、节能减排、建设城市规划设计安全、控制参与者口增长等策略联系起来。After the increase of walking space, the strategies of climate regulation, energy conservation and emission reduction, urban safety construction and population growth control can be linked.

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但这种联系是有一个前提条件的,即城市规划设计生活中,必须要有吸引大众选择步行的设计空间。这需要规范设计空间尺度,使活动形式具有吸引力,互动设计空间更灵活。适宜步行的城市规划设计所提出的园林景观设计理念,即为健康可生态可持续的城市规划设计园林景观设计理念。
But this link also comes with a requirement in return. The experience of the city must entice residents and visitors to walk. In this city human scale is normative, physical activity is stimulated and space for social interaction is created. A walkable city shares a design brief with that of a sustainable and healthy city.

▼步行能够给参与者带来健康的体魄,从而达到健康城市规划设计的园林景观设计理念Walking can bring people a healthy body, so as to achieve the concept of a healthy city.

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实践案例:荷兰城市规划设计鹿特丹Rotterdam as a test case
为了设计研究步行城市规划设计的可行性,本设计研究以园林景观建筑规划设计鹿特丹为例进行了实践。城市规划设计是一个有趣的设计研究设计对象,因为汽车在城市规划设计园林景观设计中发挥了主导作用。在市中心遭到轰炸后,政府制定了《鹿特丹重建基本园林景观建筑规划方案》,这为建立一个全新的街道设计模式创造了机会。
To investigate the feasibility of the walkable city, the research takes Rotterdam as a testcase. The city is an interesting study area because of the dominant role the car has played in the design of the city. After the bombing of the city center, the “Basic Plan for the Reconstruction of Rotterdam” was developed. The devastated area was swept clean, creating the opportunity to build a completely new street pattern according to modernist principles.

▼案例位置 case site

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景观建筑师尝试将生活区和设计工作区分开,打造一种“未来的交通”方式。景观建筑师选择了四个实践点,来尝试将汽车影响下的城市规划设计布局转变为适宜步行的城市规划设计布局。
Living and working areas were separated, and space was created for the “traffic of the future”. Four test locations were selected, to test the transformation from a car-oriented layout, to a walkable city.

▼实践点1,城市规划设计更新区-Nieuwe Westen Case 1 Urban renewal districts – Nieuwe Westen
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地点:  荷兰
客户:  van Rijksadviseurs学院-Mike Emmerik,Daan Zandbelt
年份:  2019-2020
类型:  园林景观设计设计研究
Team和合作者:  Michiel van Driessche,Marnix Vink,Deborah Lambert,Eduardo Marin,Salinas, Elan Redekop van der Meulen,Cherk Ga Leung,Sander van der Ham: Stipo
图片:  ©Felixx
办公室:  Felixx Landscape architects & planners
设计公司官网: www.felixx.nl
Location:  The Netherlands
Client:  College van Rijksadviseurs – Mike Emmerik, Daan Zandbelt
Year:  2019 – 2020
Type:  Research by design
Team and Partners:  Michiel van Driessche,Marnix Vink,Deborah Lambert,Eduardo Marin,Salinas, Elan Redekop van der Meulen,Cherk Ga Leung,Sander van der Ham: Stipo
Copyrights:  ©Felixx
Offices:  Felixx Landscape architects & planners

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